personality disorders type a b c d

personality disorders type a b c d

 The nature of each person is unique. We all have our own characteristics, manifesting them in behavior and through the palette of our thoughts and feelings. These manifestations make up the personality of each of us, distinguishing us from each other. Some people like to be in company, while others prefer to be alone.

Some are emotional, some are unperturbed. One likes new impressions and experiences, the other is important to stick to familiar things. This diversity is what makes human relationships interesting. But there are people whose characteristics (thoughts, feelings, behavior) can interfere with themselves and make relationships painful.

In this case, we can presumably say that a person has a particular personality disorder.

The term "personality disorder" is not ideal. Its use in relation to a particular person can lead to stigmatization, because it is often used inappropriately as a label. “Something is wrong with you,” - few people will like such words. However, personality disorders are real mental disorders that cause suffering.

It is important to understand the nature of these conditions so that people have the opportunity to receive the necessary, adequate assistance. Personality disorder is a stable complex of features of thinking, behavior and emotions that leads a person to difficulties in everyday life. It is not easy for a person with a personality disorder to change their behavior and adapt to a variety of life situations. He may have problems with work and with maintaining stable positive relationships with people.

Types of personality disorders

There are many different types of personality disorders. Some people are characterized by excessive anxiety or aloofness, others by excessive emotionality and instability, and others by eccentricity and eccentricity.

But the symptoms of all of them are so serious and stable that they manifest themselves in all areas of life. Personality disorders begin to manifest themselves in adolescence or a little earlier and, as a rule, smooth out by old age.

Personality disorders are often combined with other painful conditions - depression, various types of addictive behavior. There are many approaches to the typology of personality disorders.

Simplifying, we can say that each person carries with him the whole variety of possible personality traits, some of which can be overly pronounced. What features are pointed and to what extent - this determines the type of personality disorder. Since the pointed features lie on the same spectrum as the normal ones, it is not always possible to speak of a pronounced personality disorder, but only of some of its manifestation.

Some people may also show signs of more than one personality disorder.

I will present one of the most common typologies of personality disorders, in which they are divided into groups, the so-called clusters.

Cluster A.

Strange and eccentric behavior. paranoid personality disorder.

People with this disorder are suspicious and distrustful, tending to interpret the behavior of others as unfriendly or humiliating. A person with this disorder is stubborn, sullen, angry and aggressive for no reason. Often perceives other people as unscrupulous, disloyal, condescending, or deceitful. This type of people is also characterized by jealousy, secrecy and even deceit, they may seem to others emotionally cold or overly serious.

Schizoid personality disorder.

Schizoid personalities are introverted, self-contained, prone to loneliness, emotionally cold. They are often absorbed in their thoughts and feelings, afraid to get close to other people. Establishing and maintaining intimate relationships is a serious problem for them.

People with schizoid disorder have no interest in social contacts; in communication situations they demonstrate extremely poor emotional expression. Schizotypal personality disorder. People with this disorder are distinguished by their eccentricity and often by their appearance. They may wear unusual or inappropriate clothing, express strange ideas and beliefs. In social situations, they experience severe anxiety, resulting in inappropriate, inappropriate behavior. It is difficult for them to maintain close relationships. Such people may react inadequately during a conversation, or not react at all, they talk to themselves. It is not uncommon for "magic thinking" when a person with schizotypal disorder is convinced, for example, that he can see the future or read other people's minds.

Cluster B.

Instability of emotional states, drama and impulsive behavior. Antisocial personality disorder.

People with antisocial personality disorder are characterized by conflict and disregard for social norms of behavior. They are impulsive, irresponsible and callous. A common place for an antisocial personality are problems with the law, aggressive and irresponsible behavior, manifestations of violence. They show no respect for other people and feel no remorse for the pain their behavior causes to others. Due to a low or absent capacity for empathy, a person with antisocial personality disorder is unfamiliar with remorse.

For such people, the risk of drug abuse is high, as it helps them relieve tension, irritability and boredom.

Hysterical personality disorder. People with this disorder are very emotional and demonstrative, their need for attention and recognition is too excessive, they are often obsessed with their appearance.

They have an irresistible desire to be noticed, they resort to inappropriate behavior to get attention. The expression of the emotions of a person with this disorder is intense and even pretentious, exaggerated, the emotional states themselves are unstable. The self-image of such people is distorted.

The self-esteem of the hysterical person depends on the approval of others and is not based on self-esteem.

Borderline personality disorder.

At the base of the borderline personality structure lies the fear of rejection. People with borderline personality disorder are extremely unstable in interpersonal relationships, behavior, mood, and self-esteem. Sudden and intense mood swings, turbulent, dramatic interpersonal relationships, unstable self-image, unpredictable actions: all of these characterize the borderline personality.

These people have problems with a sense of identity. Their perception of reality is very flat, like "everything is good" or "everything is bad", and their self-esteem is very fragile. Borderline disorder is also characterized by impulsive actions, episodes of self-harm (cuts, burns), self-destructive and suicidal behavior, fits of anger, chronic feelings of boredom and emptiness.

Narcissistic personality disorder.

The narcissistic personality is characterized by an exaggerated sense of self-importance, consumed by fantasies of unlimited success, power, and beauty, constantly seeking admiration and attention. Narcissists are hypersensitive to failure, prone to extreme mood swings between self-admiration and feelings of worthlessness. The narcissistic personality uses interpersonal relationships to satisfy their need for admiration, and their lack of empathy prevents them from being caring. Narcissists are also prone to hypochondria.

Cluster C.

Anxiety, threatening thoughts, avoidance. Avoidant personality disorder.

People with this disorder avoid social interaction and are extremely sensitive to the negative judgments of others. They often experience feelings of inadequacy, are timid and prone to social isolation. A person with this disorder is hypersensitive to rejection and can decide on intimacy only if he is completely sure that he is loved. The avoidant personality is characterized by excessive social discomfort, timidity, fear of criticism, avoidance of social or work activities. Such people are afraid to seem stupid, worried that they might blush or burst into tears in front of third parties. They may not have close relationships outside the family circle, while they yearn for intimacy and become frustrated because they cannot build relationships with others.

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

Such individuals are conscientious and have a high level of claims, they are characterized by perfectionism. They are rarely satisfied with their achievements, tend to take on more and more responsibilities. They are reliable, trustworthy, accurate and methodical, but their inflexibility results in them being unable to adapt to changing circumstances. A person with this disorder tends to be scrupulous about solving problems, paying attention to every detail, which often just makes it difficult to achieve success. In unpredictable situations or when it is required to trust others, a compulsive person may feel confused and helpless. Such people live by the rules and have a need to keep everything under control.

Dependent personality disorder.

People with dependent personality disorder are a model of dependent and submissive behavior, they rely on others to make decisions for them. They require comfort, care and advice, and suffer heavily from criticism and disapproval. They feel helpless when they are alone, they feel empty when close relationships end. A dependent person is very afraid of rejection and is incapable of independent actions. She can be submissive and patient even in humiliating relationships.


Until now, there is no exact data on the causes of personality disorders. It is thought that personality disorders may arise from a complex interplay of negative early life experiences and genetic factors. There is no reliable evidence that any gene is responsible for the formation of a personality disorder.

At the same time, it is known that characterological features are inherited. It is known that the quality of attachment between a child and a parent and a healthy child-parent relationship provides favorable conditions for the development of personality.

People with personality disorders (particularly those with borderline personality disorder) have had high levels of childhood abuse, trauma, or neglect. Disruption of attachment between a parent and lack of proper care in early childhood can have a negative impact on personality development.


Personality Disorders Personality disorders are difficult to manage alone. Seeking help from a specialist is an important step towards getting support and treatment. It can be difficult for people with a personality disorder to do this, because trust in a doctor or psychologist is not an easy issue. However, establishing a positive relationship with a professional helper is essential on the road to recovery.


Psychotherapy is the most effective long-term treatment for personality disorders. Psychotherapy helps people understand their thoughts, motivations, and feelings through the relationship they develop with a therapist. As a result of psychotherapy, people begin to manage their symptoms, develop positive relationships with loved ones and change their behavior. The type of psychotherapy (individual or group) and psychotherapeutic school is most often a matter of taste.

Medical treatment.

There is no medicine yet on this planet that can cure a personality disorder. However, drugs - antidepressants, mood stabilizers, neuroleptics - are effective in eliminating symptoms and conditions (depression, anxiety, mood swings) that often accompany personality disorders. Medication works most effectively when combined with psychotherapy. And, of course, the question of the advisability of taking medications can only be decided at a face-to-face meeting with a qualified doctor.

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